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Background

CO2 emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries account for about 20% of the total anthropogenic emissions as underlined in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). To control those CO2 emissions from deforestation and forest degradation is our immediate task to reduce global emissions of the greenhouse gases.
In 2005, at the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP11) held in Montreal, Canada, the proposal was made that it is necessary to tackle on "reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD)," which is not ruled within the current Kyoto Protocol. Subsequently, Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) to the COP discussed the REDD issues for the following two years.
The Stern Review published in October 2006 also emphasized "A policy to reduce deforestation would be more productive, in terms of emissions saved, than afforestation and reforestation." Accordingly, the importance of REDD was recognized internationally.
In addition, Bali Action Plan, which was adopted at COP13 in 2007, confirmed that REDD is a main agenda for the Post-Kyoto framework after 2012.
In the Copenhagen Accord agreed at COP15 in 2009, it was emphasized that it is necessary to build the framework to promote "REDD-plus" activities which further includes enhanced roles of forest conservation, sustainable forest management and enhancement of forest carbon stocks on top of REDD activities. The REDD-plus activities are greatly expected not only to reduce CO2 emissions in developing countries, but also to contribute to conservation of forest and biological diversity and development of local economy.