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Recommended readings of Cookbook

Papers of particular recommended with overview and sources are listed.

    Chapter 1 About REDD-plus
      No.01
      Title Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation
      Year 2011
      Author(s) Agrawal A, Nepstad DC, Chhatre A
      Organization or publisher Annual Review of Environment and Resources
      Language English
      Recipe I01
      Overview This review assesses trends of REDD-plus discussions mainly from a social science perspective. After introducing the history of REDD-plus negotiations and explaining environmental and social aspects of REDD-plus, it briefly reviews actors in international and national initiatives, markets, and civil society as well as problems of carbon monitoring, with the challenges of carbon monitoring as a crosscutting theme. This multi-faceted review is one of best introductions to REDD-plus.
      Source of original materials http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-environ-042009-094508

      No.2
      Title REDD-plus (Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries; and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries)
      Year 2012
      Author(s) Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO)
      Organization or publisher JICA, ITTO pp. 32
      Language Japanese, English
      Recipe I01
      Overview This booklet published by JICA and ITTO is designed for the general public with the aim of raising awareness and increasing understanding of REDD-plus. In addition to a brief introduction on the context and concept of REDD-plus, it gives an overview of Japanese government policies on climate change and the involvement of JICA and ITTO in REDD-plus. This publication will be of most benefit to newcomers to REDD-plus who wish to understand the basic concept of REDD-plus and to people involved in REDD-plus who wish to get the "big picture" of ongoing REDD-plus related projects and activities implemented by JICA and ITTO.
      Source of original materials http://www.jica.go.jp/publication/pamph/ku57pq00000najg5-att/redd.pdf

      No.3
      Title What is the right scale for REDD? The implications of national, subnational and nested approaches
      Year 2008
      Author(s) Angelsen A, Streck C, Peskett L, Brown J, Luttrell C
      Organization or publisher CIFOR No.15 pp. 6
      Language English, Vietnamese
      Recipe I02
      Overview This CIFOR brief gives a clear idea of three approaches at three levels or scales of REDD accounting and incentive mechanisms: national, sub-national or project, or a nested approach. The three approaches are briefly introduced and assessed by the three criteria of effectiveness, efficiency, and equity. Although this brief doesn't provide case studies, it is useful for understanding the concept and pros & cons of each approach in a short time. It is highly recommended, particularly for people who wish to understand the concept of linking REDD-plus projects with REDD-plus activities atnational scale.
      Source of original materials http://www.cifor.org/online-library/browse/view-publication/publication/2595.html

      No.4
      Title REDD+ at project scale: Evaluation and Development Guide
      Year 2010
      Author(s) Calmel, Marie., Anne Martinet, Nicolas Grondard, Thomas Dufour, Maxence Rageade, Anouk Ferté-Devin
      Organization or publisher FFEM, ONFI etc. pp. 215
      Language English, French
      Recipe I02
      Overview This is a guide to REDD-plus project development and project evaluation designed for project developers, investors and funding agencies. This guidebook covers a range of topics, such as site selection, design and implementation of activities, legal and institutional aspects, economic and financial aspects, and environmental and social safeguards, in a balanced manner. It also presents case studies and gives specific suggestions for each topic. This guide is highly recommended for project proponents and program/policy makers of REDD-plus.
      Source of original materials http://www.onfinternational.org/en/publications/313-qguide-redd-a-lechelle-projetq-guide-devaluation-et-de-developpement.html

      No.5
      Title Building Forest Carbon Projects: Step-by-Step Overview and Guide. In: Building Forest Carbon Projects
      Year 2011
      Author(s) Olander J, Ebeling J
      Organization or publisher Forest Trends pp. 58
      Language English
      Recipe I02 I03 I04
      Overview This series of guides helps project proponents by giving tips on making a project successful. Based on Forest Trends' experience in forest carbon projects, it covers multiple aspects of REDD-plus, including technical issues, environmental and social considerations, and financial matters. This series covers eight topics: overview, REDD technical project design, afforestation/reforestation technical project design, carbon stock assessment, community engagement, legal issues, business, social impacts, and biodiversity impacts. Each guide will be a useful reference for project proponents. These are all freely downloadable.
      Source of original materials http://forest-trends.org/publication_details.php?publicationID=2555

    Chapter 2 Designing a forest monitoring system
      No.6
      Title Cost of implementing methodologies and monitoring systems relating to estimates of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, the assessment of carbon stocks and greenhouse gas emissions from changes in forest cover, and the enhancement of forest carbon stocks
      Year 2009
      Author(s) UNFCCC
      Organization or publisher Technical paper, UNFCCC FCCC/TP/2009/1, pp. 44
      Language English
      Recipe I02, I03
      Overview This technical paper prepared by the UNFCCC secretariat gives an overview of the requirements, steps, and cost of developing and implementing a GHG monitoring system. It contains information on the current state of monitoring capacity of non-Annex I countries and the required capacity for implementing the system, cost estimation by country, by each step of system development and by each country's land area, and the relationship between cost and accuracy and precision. This report also present a case study of development of the Indian national forest monitoring system as well as further references to studies conducting detailed cost analyses of the development. For people in charge of a national forest monitoring system for REDD-plus and for those who wish to follow this topic, this paper is a useful introduction.
      Source of original materials http://unfccc.int/documentation/documents/advanced_search/items/6911.php?priref=600005151

      No.7
      Title An assessment of national forest monitoring capabilities in tropical non-Annex 1 countries: Recommendations for capacity building
      Year 2009
      Author(s) Herold M
      Organization or publisher GOFC-GOLD pp. 62
      Language English
      Recipe I03
      Overview This study aims to identify, for 99 tropical non-Annex I countries, the near-term capacity-development activities that are necessary for implementing a forest area change and carbon stock monitoring system. Readers get an overview of the status of forest monitoring system development in 99 countries and the challenges they face. In addition, the study provides detailed country reports on current capacity and suggestions on further capacity development for 30 of those countries. The study will be of most benefit to project managers who wish to understand the status of forest carbon monitoring systems in the countries of their interest.
      Source of original materials http://unfccc.int/methods_science/redd/methodologies/other/items/4542.php

      No.8
      Title Estimating the cost of building capacity in rainforest nations to allow them to participate in a global REDD mechanism
      Year 2008
      Author(s) Hoare Alison, Thomas Legge, Ruth Nussbaum, Jade Saunders
      Organization or publisher Office of Climate Change, UK pp. 38
      Language English
      Recipe I04
      Overview This report estimates funds required for 'readiness' activities needed for 25 rainforest countries to participate in a REDD mechanism. It calculates the costs of concrete activities such as developing a national REDD strategy, development of reference levels & forest inventory, land use planning & zoning, and forest policy & legislation and reform. Annex 1 gives project case studies and their costs, surveyed for this report. This report will be of most benefit to policy makers or donors as a reference on the funds necessary for readiness, as well as a catalog of case studies.
      Source of original materials http://www.illegal-logging.info/item_single.php?it_id=744&it=document

      No.9
      Title A stepwise framework for developing REDD+ reference levels (Chapter 16). In: Analysing REDD+: Challenges and choices
      Year 2012
      Author(s) Herold M, Angelsen A, Verchot LV, Wijaya A, Ainembabazi JH
      Organization or publisher CIFOR pp. 279-299
      Language English
      Recipe I04, P13
      Overview This chapter in the CIFOR book Analysing REDD+ Challenges and Choices introduces a stepwise approach necessary for developing forest reference (emission) levels. It explains a three-step approach and the different technical capacities required by each step, and points out problems of uncertainty and different ways of coping with it. This chapter also contains case studies from Brazil, Indonesia and Viet Nam in which multiple regression analyses are applied (Step Two). In addition, Box 16.3 is very useful for people who are confused about REDD-plus terminology and the differences between 'three phases', 'three approaches', 'three tiers' and three steps'!
      Source of original materials http://www.cifor.org/online-library/browse/view-publication/publication/3805.html

      No.10
      Title What is needed to make REDD+ work on the ground? Lessons learned from pilot forest carbon initiatives
      Year 2010
      Author(s) Harvey CA, Zerbock O, Papageorgiou S, Parra A
      Organization or publisher Conservation International pp. 121
      Language English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Chinese
      Recipe I04
      Overview This report provides a summary of the key factors needed to ensure that REDD-plus projects are successful at reducing greenhouse gas emissions, while also providing biodiversity and social co-benefits. It is based on the initial experiences of 12 forest carbon projects (5 REDD-plus and 7 AR/CDM). The reports highlight five key factors for success: 1) strong partnerships and local capacity; 2) robust technical and scientific information and analysis; 3) sufficient funding for project development 4) strong stakeholder participation both in project design and implementation; and 5) full support from the government. The report provides an overview of how the 12 forest carbon projects were designed and implemented, and includes a summary of the key lessons learned. It also provides recommendations on how to ensure forest carbon projects provide the desired climate, biodiversity and social benefits. The report will be of most benefit to project managers who are initiating feasibility studies.
      Source of original materials http://www.conservation.org/publications/Pages/REDD_lessons_learned.aspx

    Chapter 3 Basic knowledge needed for REDD-plus implementation
      No.11
      Title Legal Frameworks for REDD: Design and Implementation at the National Level
      Year 2009
      Author(s) Costenbader J (ed.)
      Organization or publisher IUCN Environmental Policy and Law Paper 77: 1-197
      Language English
      Recipe I04 P03
      Overview This IUCN report on legal frameworks for REDD presents the legal requirements that need to be addressed at national level (such as ownership of land, use rights, participation, benefit sharing, additionality, and permanence) and makes suggestions about framework development. As appendices, it includes a checklist of these requirements and examples of REDD-plus legal frameworks from four countries (Brazil, Cameroon, Guiana, and Papua New Guinea), which have been carefully chosen by considering geographic condition, forest area, deforestation rate, etc. This report will be useful for policymakers and project proponents who wish to investigate topics that should be considered in developing the legal framework in their own country.
      Source of original materials http://www.iucn.org/about/work/programmes/environmental_law/elp_resources/elp_res_publications/?uPubsID=3943

      No.12
      Title The Importance of Defining 'Forest': Tropical Forest Degradation, Deforestation, Long-term Phase Shifts, and Further Transitions
      Year 2010
      Author(s) Putz FE, Redford KH
      Organization or publisher Biotropica 42(1): 10-20
      Language English
      Recipe P01
      Overview This paper is a comprehensive discussion about the history of the term 'forest' and its use by diverse actors in the social and natural sciences. The paper includes discussion of 'forest' as defined by the UNFCCC and FAO, and of the definitions 'deforestation' and 'forest degradation' in tropical regions used for REDD-plus. This paper is particularly useful for REDD-plus negotiators and scholars who are interested in REDD-plus issues and who wish to understand the definitions used in REDD-plus discussions and the problems with those definitions.
      Source of original materials http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1744-7429.2009.00567.x/abstract

      No.13
      Title Global and national REDD+ architecture: Linking institutions and actions (Chapter 2 ). In: Realising REDD+: National strategy and policy options
      Year 2009
      Author(s) Wertz-Kanounnikoff S, Angelsen A
      Organization or publisher CIFOR pp. 13-24
      Language English, French, Spanish, Indonesian
      Recipe P01
      Overview The one of topics of this chapter, in a CIFOR book entitled Realising REDD+ National Strategy and Policy, is a discussion of the '-plus' of REDD. The chapter briefly outlines the history on of the negotiations and how 'RED' evolved to 'REDD-plus'. In addition, Box 1.1 in Chapter 1 of this book summarizes the definition of REDD-plus. These parts of the book will be useful for newcomers to REDD-plus or people who wish to revisit the discussion about the definition of REDD-plus.
      Source of original materials http://www.cifor.cgiar.org/nc/online-library/browse/view-publication/publication/2871.html

      No.14
      Title a. Taking Stock: Negotiating and Implementing REDD+ (Chapter 2). In: REDD+ Institutional Options Assessment: Developing an Efficient, Effective, and Equitable Institutional Framework for REDD+ under the UNFCCC
      b. REDD Finance Options (Chapter 2). In: Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD): An Options Assessment Report
      Year a. 2009
      b. 2009
      Author(s) a. Streck C, Gomez-Echeverri L, Gutman P, Loisel C, Werksman J
      b. Angelsen A, Brown S, Loisel C, Peskett L, Streck C, Zarin D
      Organization or publisher a. Meridian Institute pp. 3-5
      b. Meridian Institute pp. 3-11
      Language a. English, French, Spanish, Portuguese
      b. English, French, Spanish, Portuguese
      Recipe P02
      Overview These two reports (a and b) introduce the phased approach. Chapter 2 of report a summarizes the three phases. In particular, Table 2.1 is a useful introduction to specific topics such as activities, costs, performance indicators, and capacity for MRV, and an overview of the requirements of each phase. Chapter 2 of report b explains the relationship between the phased approach and finance options in detail. It describes activities that require financial support and proposes options for mobilization of international finance for each phase. We suggest people who wish to understand the basics of the phased approach to read the two chapters together.
      Source of original materials http://www.redd-oar.org/rl.html

      No.15
      Title REDD+ safeguards in national policy discourse and pilot projects (Chapter 17). In: Analysing REDD+: Challenges and choices
      Year 2012
      Author(s) Jagger P, Lawlor K, Brockhaus M, Gebara MF, Sonwa DJ, Resosudarmo IAP
      Organization or publisher CIFOR pp. 301-316
      Language English
      Recipe P03
      Overview This chapter in the CIFOR book is an overview of the current state of environmental and social safeguards and highlights challenges and choices for implementing REDD-plus safeguards. This brief consists primarily of an analysis of the safeguards established in several ongoing pilot projects in Brazil, Cameroon, Indonesia, Tanzania, and Viet Nam, and also discusses core safeguard issues covered by the national media. This chapter will be useful for people such as project proponents who wish to get information necessary to understand the current UNFCCC negotiations about how safeguards for REDD-plus activities are to be addressed and respected.
      Source of original materials http://www.cifor.org/online-library/browse/view-publication/publication/3805.html

      No.16
      Title Safeguarding and enhancing the ecosystem-derived benefits of REDD+. Multiple Benefits Series 2
      Year 2010
      Author(s) Miles L, Dunning E, Doswald N
      Organization or publisher UN-REDD Programme pp. 50
      Language English
      Recipe P03
      Overview This issue paper provides concrete ideas on how national REDD-plus programs can safeguard ecosystem services and biodiversity and proposes options for enhancing these benefits. It describes approaches and methods to enhance ecosystem services and benefits in a comprehensive manner and introduces tools available for the purpose. This paper will be particularly useful for program developers who need to incorporate the consideration of safeguards for ecosystem services and biodiversity into a REDD-plus program.
      Source of original materials http://www.unep-wcmc.org/multiple-benefits-series-2_629.html

      No.17
      Title Multiple Benefits Series 5 & 6
      a. Ecosystem services and biodiversity from new and restored forests: tool development.
      b. Methods for assessing and monitoring change in the ecosystem-derived benefits of afforestation, reforestation and forest restoration.
      Year 2010
      Author(s) a. Miles L, Kapos V, Dunning E
      b. Doswald N, Osti M, Miles L
      Organization or publisher UN-REDD Programme, UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre a. pp. 8 b. pp. 11
      Language English
      Recipe P03
      Overview These two documents (a and b) address safeguard issues of projects and programs that include afforestation, reforestation, and forest restoration activities. Document a provides useful information about assessing the potential impacts of these activities on biodiversity, water, soil, and non-timber forest products by providing a visual 'score card'. It also lists many papers that can be consulted to obtain additional information. Document b summarizes the requirements and steps of designing a monitoring system to assess the impacts and introduces several guides and methods for designing such a system. The two documents together will help people who wish to understand basic approaches to avoiding adverse impacts of afforestation, reforestation, and forest restoration activities.
      Source of original materials http://www.un-redd.org/MultipleBenefitsPublications/tabid/5954/Default.aspx

      No.18
      Title Climate Change and the Role of Forests: A Trainer's Manual
      Year 2010
      Author(s) Stone S
      Organization or publisher Conservation International
      Language English, Spanish, French, Bahasa (Indonesian), Malagasy, Khmer (Cambodian), Mandarin (Chinese)
      Recipe P03
      Overview The Climate Change and the Role of Forests Training of Trainers materials are designed to expand local communities' knowledge about issues related to climate science, the forest carbon cycle, climate policy, Payment for Ecosystem Services, and REDD-plus . The main objective of these materials is to expand the number of skilled trainers who are able to effectively deliver information on issues related to climate change and REDD-plus to communities and other local stakeholders. The methodology includes guidance on training design and facilitation skills and, along with the manual, the training toolkit also includes flashcards, posters, and training activities. The materials are available in seven languages and have been used in 12 countries. The toolkit is available for not-for-profit organizations upon request.
      Source of original materials You can request this manual from the following site. http://www.conservation.org/publications/Pages/climate_change_and_the_role_of_forests.aspx

    Chapter 4 Measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of forest carbon
      No.19
      Title Emissions factors. Converting land use change to CO2 estimates (Chapter 15). In: Analysing REDD+: Challenges and choices
      Year 2012
      Author(s) Verchot LV, Anitha K, Romijn E, Herold M, Hergoualc'h K
      Organization or publisher CIFOR pp. 261-278
      Language English
      Recipe P04
      Overview This chapter in Analysing REDD-PLUS Challenges and Choices introduces the measuring of forest carbon in REDD-plus, and describes the current state of non-Annex I countries with regard to capacity and information available for the measurement, and concludes by summarizes future challenges. It gives detailed explanations of the Gain-Loss Method (including an approach for peatland) and the Tier 1 approach, which the Cookbook discusses only briefly. Furthermore, this chapter covers a range of topics, from the currently available emission factors and the possibility of improving them to a potential integration of community carbon monitoring with national carbon monitoring. This chapter is particularly recommended for people who wish a concise presentation of forest carbon measurements not covered by the Cookbook.
      Source of original materials http://www.cifor.org/online-library/browse/view-publication/publication/3805.html

      No.20
      Title a. Reporting on climate change: user manual for the guidelines on national communications from non-Annex I Parties
      b. UNFCCC Resource Guide For Preparing The National Communications of Non-Annex I Parties. Module 3 National greenhouse Gas Inventories
      Year a. 2004 b. 2009
      Author(s) UNFCCC
      Organization or publisher UNFCCC a. pp. 38 b. pp. 32
      Language a. English, French, Spanish b. English
      Recipe P05
      Overview Manual a was prepared to help non-Annex I countries develop a national communication (NC) based on information currently available. To ensure that the parties fully document all that needs to be reported, it provides detailed explanations and tips and points out relevant articles of the convention. In addition, for further explanation, four sets Resource Guides are available. The third guide (b) provides guidance on developing a national GHG inventory. Since REDD-plus rules are being negotiated, we don't know what countries should report or how they should structure the report. Nevertheless, these documents help us visualize what a national level report should look like.
      Source of original materials http://unfccc.int/national_reports/non-annex_i_natcom/guidelines_and_user_manual/items/2607.php

      No.21
      Title IPCC Inventory Software
      Year 2012
      Author(s) IPCC
      Organization or publisher The IPCC Task Force on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories
      Language English
      Recipe P05
      Overview This software was developed to help countries develop a national GHG inventory (see recipe P05 in the Cookbook) and in a national communication for submission to the UNFCCC. This software's structure follows the Tier 1 and Tier 2 methodologies of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines. Since default data for Tier 1 methodology have already been embedded in the software, users can use that data to perform a simulation. In addition, a user manual for the software can be downloaded from the same website. Because specific reporting requirements have not yet been decided, this software will be useful for people who wish to begin planning the development of an inventory and the probable reporting requirements.
      Source of original materials http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/software/new.html

      No.22
      Title Verification and Issuance (Chapter 8). In: Building Forest Carbon Projects. Step-by-Step Overview and Guide
      Year 2011
      Author(s) Olander J, Ebeling J
      Organization or publisher Forest Trends pp. 51-53
      Language English
      Recipe P06
      Overview This guide is an introduction to verification and credit issuance at the project level (this guide is also in the 'Building Forest Carbon Projects' series introduced in No. 5). Because the UNFCCC has not agreed on the REDD-plus verification modality, this chapter explains basic steps for verification of GHG benefits from a project, the possible costs of verification, and the importance of the timing of the initial verification, giving examples of both VCS and CDM. In addition, it briefly describes the relationship between credit issuance and verification. This section of the guide will be useful for people who need information about the verification modality of REDD-plus at the project level.
      Source of original materials http://forest-trends.org/publication_details.php?publicationID=2555

    Chapter 5 Monitoring by the stock change method
      No.23
      Title Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation, 6th edition
      Year 2007
      Author(s) Lillesand T, Kiefer RW, Chipman J
      Organization or publisher Wiley pp. 804
      Language English
      Recipe P08
      Overview This book is the sixth edition (the first edition was published in 1979) of a well-known textbook on remote sensing and image interpretation that is used globally. The book is designed as a reference for practitioners who deal with geospatial information in various fields. Since the book is intended as a general textbook about remote sensing, it provides relatively little information specific to forest ecosystems. Nevertheless, it is highly recommended for people wish to acquire a fundamental understanding of the remote sensing topics introduced in P08 and Chapter 7, such as types of remote sensing data, selection of data, pre-processing of data, classification methods, and accuracy verification.
      Source of original materials Book available for purchase ISBN-978-0470052457

      No.24
      Title Field Methods in Remote Sensing
      Year 2005
      Author(s) McCoy RM
      Organization or publisher The Guilford Press pp. 159
      Language English
      Recipe P08
      Overview This book provides guidance on ground truthing methods used in remote sensing applications. It includes detailed explanations on project planning, sampling methods, steps for identifying locations in the field using a GPS, and various measurement methods. In particular, the explanations on the measurement methods of vegetation and on identifying and measuring various surface features, as well as the included field note forms, will be useful for people conducting field surveys for REDD-plus. This book will be of most benefit to people who have an understanding of remote sensing but little practical knowledge about ground truthing.
      Source of original materials Book available for purchase ISBN978-1593850791

      No.25
      Title Carbon Inventory Methods: Handbook for Greenhouse Gas Inventory, Carbon Mitigation and Roundwood Production Projects
      Year 2008
      Author(s) Ravindranath NH, Ostwald M
      Organization or publisher Springer pp. 306
      Language English
      Recipe P04 P05 P06 P07 P08 P09 P10
      Overview This handbook on the development of forest carbon inventory was written by two experts in this arena, one of whom has been involved in the preparation of the IPCC guidelines. The handbook includes detailed explanations on the topics introduced in the Cookbook (P04?P10). In particular, it describes methods for measuring carbon pools that are not covered in detail in our Cookbook: below-ground biomass, dead wood, litter, and soil. This book is highly recommended for carbon inventory planners and people who will conduct field surveys. It should be a useful companion book to our Cookbook.
      Source of original materials Book available for purchase ISBN978-1-4020-6546-0

      No.26
      Title Tropical Forest Census Plots: Methods and Results from Barro Colorado Island, Panama and a Comparison with Other Plots
      Year 1998
      Author(s) Condit R
      Organization or publisher Springer-Verlag pp. 211
      Language English
      Recipe P10
      Overview This book gives detailed explanations on methods for establishing plots for large-scale ecological surveys in tropical forests. It includes a comprehensive description of the requirements of permanent sample plots (PSPs), introduced in the Cookbook, and provides tips on conducting plot surveys, including field survey methods and database development, ways of coping with problems that might arise during a survey, and scheduling and labor estimation for the survey. It also includes case studies about surveys in Barro Colorado Island, Panama, and 11 other large forest areas in the world. This handbook will be quite useful for planners involved in plot design and people conducting field surveys.
      Source of original materials Book available for purchase ISBN978-3-540-64144-5

      No.27
      Title Winrock Terrestrial Sampling Calculator
      Year 2007
      Author(s) Walker SM, Pearson T, Brown S
      Organization or publisher Winrock International
      Language English
      Recipe P10 T12
      Overview This Excel tool calculates the number of PSPs necessary for each forest type, based on Stratified Sampling (introduced in T12 of the Cookbook). The user enters the area of each forest type; the carbon stocks per unit area for each, with standard deviation; the plot size; and costs (e.g., of travel, equipment, sample analysis). The output is an estimate of the number of plots required and of the cost of conducting the sampling. This is a useful tool for obtaining a quick estimate of the number of plots needed and the costs of the sampling.
      Source of original materials http://www.winrock.org/ecosystems/tools.asp

      No.28
      Title 2.7 Estimation of Uncertainties. In: A sourcebook of methods and procedures for monitoring and reporting anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and removals associated with deforestation, gains and losses of carbon stocks in forests remaining forests, and forestation
      Year 2012
      Author(s) GOFC-GOLD
      Organization or publisher GOFC-GOLD Report version COP18-1, (GOFC-GOLD Land Cover Project Office, Wageningen University, The Netherlands), pp. 2_104-2_153
      Language English
      Recipe P12
      Overview This chapter in the GOFC-GOLD Sourcebook explains how to estimate uncertainties in area and carbon stocks. It includes a brief explanation of the concept of 'uncertainties', requirements for estimating uncertainties in both area and carbon stocks, methods for combining these two uncertainties, and the reporting uncertainties. Helpful figures and tables make the material easier to understand. It also contains many useful references for further reading. This chapter will be benefit not only to people who wish to go beyond the explanations in the Cookbook but also to people who are just learning the basic concepts related to uncertainties and the combining of uncertainties.
      Source of original materials http://www.gofcgold.wur.nl/redd/

      No.29
      Title Guidelines for REDD+ Reference Levels: Principles and Recommendations
      Year 2011
      Author(s) Angelsen, Arild , Doug Boucher, Sandra Brown, Valérie Merckx, Charlotte Streck, Daniel Zarin
      Organization or publisher Meridian Institute pp. 14
      Language English
      Recipe P13
      Overview This 20-page report proposes guidelines for developing reference levels under the UNFCCC. It covers the selection of activity data and emission factors for reference level development and methods for analyzing the data. It also introduces the basic ideas and points to consider with regard to national circumstances and setting reference levels at sub-national scale. Appendix 2 contains examples of reference level development in Brazil and Guiana. This report will be useful for policy makers and people who wish to understand the theory of reference level development at the national level with practical examples.
      Source of original materials http://www.forestcarbonportal.com/resource/guidelines-redd-reference-levels-principles-and-recommendations